Commodification is the transformation of goods and services, as well as ideas or other entities that normally may not be considered goods,[1] into a commodity

Human beings can be considered subject to commodification in contexts such as genetic engineering, social engineering, cloning, eugenics, social Darwinism, Fascism, mass marketing and employment. An extreme case of commodification is slavery, where human beings themselves become a commodity to be sold and bought. Similarly, the use of non-human animals for food, clothing, entertainment, or testing represents the commodification of other living beings.[citation needed]

Karl Marx extensively criticized the social impact of commodification under the name commodity fetishism and alienation. [5]

Commodification is often criticised on the grounds that some things ought not to be for sale and ought not to be treated as if they were a tradeable commodity–for example education, data, knowledge in the digital age. [6]

I.               Aspects of commodification


Element Meaning[35]
Privatization Assigning of legal title over a commodity to a particular actor
Alienability Capacity of a given commodity to be physically and morally separated from sellers
Individuation Separating a commodity from supporting context through legal and material boundaries
Abstraction Setting individual things as equivalent based on classifiable similarities
Valuation Monetizing the value of a commodity
Displacement Spatiotemporal separation, obscuring origins and relations


A.          Les domaines où régnerait la marchandisation

Ces opposants rangent par exemple dans cette notion :

Ces adversaires s’en prennent notamment à l’OMC et aux accords de commerce internationaux comme l’AGCS, qui promeuvent une plus grande extension des domaines des marchés.

B.          Phénomènes inverses

Le développement

montre que le monde, système dynamique complexe en perpétuelle recherche d’équilibre lorsque règne la liberté d’adaptation, évolue, dans de nombreux domaines, de façon tout à fait inverse.

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